《McGraw-Hill’s 基础短语动词词典》(McGraw-Hill’s Essential Phrasal Verbs Dictionary)(Richard A. Spears)文字版[PDF]

《McGraw-Hill’s 基础短语动词词典》(McGraw-Hill’s Essential Phrasal Verbs Dictionary)(Richard A. Spears)文字版[PDF]
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  • 详细介绍简介: Introduction
    Phrasal verbs, also called two-word verbs, are idiomatic
    expressions wherein the second element of the verb (the
    adverb or particle) is not necessarily predictable. For
    instance, why the word up in call up a friend? Why not
    say call on a friend or call in a friend? Actually, those are
    three separate, unpredictable combinations, and they each
    mean something completely different. For example, you
    can call up a friend on the telephone, call on a friend to
    visit a friend’s home, and call in a friend to come help you
    with something.
    This dictionary is a compilation of 1,800 phrasal verbs
    consisting of either a transitive or intransitive verb and its
    particle or adverb. In many cases, additional prepositional
    phrases are shown as part of the entry, but the dictionary
    focuses on phrasal or two-word verbs. This second edition
    of the basic phrasal verb collection is based on
    McGraw-Hill’s Dictionary of American Idioms and Phrasal
    Verbs. The format of the dictionary is designed to provide
    the information needed by learners who are attempting
    to read and write conventional American English.
    How to Use This Dictionary
    ALPHABETIZATION
    In this dictionary, phrasal verbs (or two-word verbs) and
    their related prepositional verbs are alphabetized on the
    verb. The variable terms (such as someone or something)
    are also alphabetized.
    THE TRANSPOSABLE ADVERB
    Adverbs in most transitive phrasal verbs can swap places
    with the direct object of the verb. This cannot be done if
    the object of the verb is a pronoun. Although the result
    may, in some instances, look like a prepositional phrase,
    it is not. In the following example containing “down the
    door,” the word “down” is an adverb that stands between
    the verb and its direct object.
    She broke down the door with an axe.
    She broke the door down with an axe.
    Please hammer the nail in.
    Please hammer in the nail.
    But you cannot say:
    *She broke down it.
    *Please hammer in it.
    The entry head break something down† contains a
    dagger (†) that indicates that the “down” can be transposed
    to a position just after the verb. Any word marked
    with the dagger can be transposed to a position immediately
    following the verb except when the object of the verb
    is a pronoun. Only the adverbs followed by † can be
    swapped in this manner.
    VARIABLE TERMS
    Entries may include variable classes of words. The variable
    classes can be very broad, such as someone, which
    refers to any person, or something, which refers to any thing,
    object, or group. Many entries are very particular as to
    whether they include either someone or something. Others
    can refer to people or things, someone or something without
    distinction. In this dictionary, these words can be thought
    of as proxies for the members of the classes of words they
    describe. The following examples show the kinds of things
    that someone and something can stand for.
    associate with new friends (someone)
    associate with them (someone)
    associate with a bunch of different people (someone)
    associate with the Smiths (someone)
    play the radio at full blast (something)
    play my new record at full blast (something)
    play his huge stereo at full blast (something)
    play all the audio stuff in the whole dorm at full blast
    (something)
    The variable classes are represented in these examples
    by someone or something as in associate with someone or
    play something at full blast. There are additional proxy
    terms of this kind. All of them are descriptive of the kind
    of words or phrases they can stand for. Here are some of
    the terms you might encounter.
    a period of time “about an hour”
    doing something “eating bread and butter”
    some amount of money
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